adhan: the call to congregational prayers. In some Muslim countries this call is issued from a minaret.
A.H.: abbreviation for after hijrah. A.H. refers to the migration of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his companions from Mecca to Medina in the year 622. The Islamic lunar calendar starts from this historical event.
ahadith or hadith: plural of hadith.
alim: a learned, knowledgeable person or scholar in Islam.
Allah: according to Muslim belief, the true name of God, the Creator of the universe. Allah also has 100 attributes which describe His power, glory and characteristics. Some of His attributes are the Merciful, the Beneficent, the Wise, the All-Knowing, the Protector, the Mighty, the Loving, the First, the Last, the Eternal.
Allahu akbar: God is the Greatest. These words are repeated by Muslims many times during the course of the day, making them the most frequently chanted words on earth. Muslims say Allahu akbar when issuing the call for prayer, praying, expressing a happy feeling, approving an uplifting statement, and otherwise praising God.
amir : a leader or commander of the Muslims.
Amir al-Mumineen or Amir ul-Mumineen: leader or commander of the believers. Historically this title has been reserved for the Muslim caliph.
assalamu alaikum: peace be upon you; the Islamic greeting for Muslims. Other extended forms are assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah (may the peace and mercy of Allah be upon you) and assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh (may the peace, mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you).
ayah: a sign; verse of the Quran. In literal Arabic, ayah means miracle or sign. The Quran itself being a miracle, each of its verses (sentences) is called an ayah. The plural is ayat.
dhimmi: A non-Muslim citizen of an Islamic state. Dhimmis are exempt from military service and zakah (an Islamic alms due) but instead pay a tax called jizyah. Their life and property is protected by the Islamic state.
faqih: an expert on Islamic jurisprudence.
fiqh: the body of Islamic jurisprudence or law. In Islam it also means understanding, comprehension and knowledge. A jurist is called a faqih because he or she is an expert in Islamic legal matters. A faqih passes verdicts within the rules of the Islamic Law or Shariah.
fuqaha: plural of faqih.
fatwa: a legal opinion that is rendered by a person knowledgeable in Islamic jurisprudence.
fitnah: civil strife, war, riots, any trial or tribulation.
hadith: the sayings, actions and approvals of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him); the authentically recorded and reported narrations from the life of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), which is modeled after the teachings of the Quran.
Hajj: one of the five pillars of Islam, hajj is the pilgrimage to Makkah that Muslims must make at least once during their lifetime.
halal: permitted in Islam.
hanif : People who, during pre-Islamic days, rejected idolatry in their society. These people were in search of the true religion of Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham).
haram: 1 unlawful or prohibited in Islam. 2 sanctuary or sacred territory. Mecca has been declared a haram since the time of Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham). All things within the limit of the haram are protected and considered inviolable. Medina was also declared haram by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
hijrah: migration to seek sanctuary of freedom from religious or other persecution. In Islamic history terms, hijrah refers to the migration of Prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution. This journey took place in the twelfth year of his mission (622 C.E.). The Islamic calendar starts from this historical event. Hijrah can also mean to leave a bad way of life for a good or more righteous way.
ijtihad: To uncover Allah's rulings on any issue by using one's knowledge of the Quran, Sunnah, ijma (consensus of scholars) etc. Only the most knowledgeable about Islamic sources of legislation can engage in ijtihad.
imam: 1 the leader of the Muslim community (also called amir or khalifah); 2 leader of the congregational prayers. An imam is not infallible. He is responsible for his mistakes to all the members of the community and above all he is responsible to Almighty Allah.
iman: literally, belief; Islamically, faith and trust in Allah.
insha Allah: if God wills. Muslims say insha Allah whenever they speak about something in the future.
jahannum: hell; fire.
jannah: paradise; heaven.
jihad : derived from the Arabic root word of jahada, jihad means to strive one's utmost to achieve something good. The first and foremost jihad is against one's own carnal desires and sinful temptations. There is also jihad against a tyrant ruler or oppressor. The jihad of the latter kind is defensive in nature and can only be called by a legal Islamic authority.
jilbab: a long, loose-fitting garment worn by Muslim women.
jinn: spiritual beings that inhabit the world and are required to follow the orders of Allah. Just like humans, jinn can be good or bad and are accountable for their deeds. The word jinn in Arabic means hidden, which indicates that they are invisible creatures. They were created by Allah from fire.
jizyah: a tax paid by non-Muslims living in a Muslim State. Since the non-Muslims are exempt from military service and taxes imposed on Muslims, they must pay this tax. The Islamic state guarantees its non-Muslim citizens security and protection in return for jizyah.
Kabah: a cube-shaped structure in the city of Mecca to which all Muslims turn during their prayers. The first house of worship built for mankind, it was originally built by Prophet Adam and later reconstructed by Prophets Ibraheem (Abraham) and Isma'il (Ishmael), peace be upon them all.
kafir: a person who hides or covers up the truth and refuses to submit to Allah (God); a disbeliever in God.
khalifah: successor or representative of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) or one of his successors. This person acts as the head of state for the entire Muslim community of the world. Another title for the khalifah is Amir Al-Mumineen, which means the leader of the believers.
kuffar: plural of kafir.
kufr: 1 the act of concealing, denying or refusing to accept the truth about Allah; 2 showing ungratefulness to Allah for His bounties.
masjid: called mosque in English, the Muslim place of prayers and worship. The life of the early Muslims used to revolve around the masjid. Meetings would be held there, discussions would take place there.
muhajirin: emigrants; Prophet Muhammad's companions who migrated to escape persecution by the nonbelivers.
Muhammad: The name of the last and final messenger of God. The Quran says that the coming of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was foretold by each one of the foregoing prophets and the people were commanded to follow him when he appeared. His distinguishing feature was that he would confirm the truth of all prophets and revelations that preceded him. While other prophets were sent to a particular nation or tribe, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was sent to all mankind.
muazzin: a person who issues the call for the five daily prayers.
munafiq : hypocrite.
munafiqun: plural of munafiq.
mushrik: polythiest; a person who ascribes partners to Allah.
mushrikun: plural of mushrik.
Muslim: one who submits to God.
nabi: prophet; one who has received revelation from Allah.
P.B.U.H.: abbreviation for peace be upon him, derived from the Arabic words alaihi salam. Muslims traditionally say this after the name of all prophets to show respect and love. (Because Muslims are supposed to say sallallahu alaihe wasallam after the name of Prophet Muhammad and because P.B.U.H. does not accurately convey that meaning, many instead prefer the abbreviation S.A.W.)
qiblah : the direction Muslims face when praying. Muslims turn in prayers toward the Kabah, the cube-shaped house of worship that Prophets Ibraheem and his son Isma'il built in Mecca.
Quran: the Muslim book of revelations is called the Quran. It was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) from Allah through angel Jibril (Gabriel) over a period of 23 years. There is only one Quran in the whole world and it is in the Arabic language. The Quran has one text, one language, and one dialect. It has been memorized by millions of Muslims in different parts of the world.
Ramadan: the Islamic month of dawn-to-dusk fasting. It falls on the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar. Fasting is obligatory for every healthy and able Muslim man and woman. It was during this month that the Qur'an began to be revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Muslims engage in extra prayers and charity during this month.
rasul: messenger; one who receives revelation from Allah and is commanded to deliver the message to his people. Allah sent many prophets and messengers to mankind. Amongst them, the names of twenty-five are mentioned in the Quran. Five among them are major messengers: Nuh (Noah), Ibraheem (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus) , and Muhammad, peace be upon them all. Prophet Muhammad is the last messenger.
S.A.W.S.: abbreviation for the words sallallahu alaihi wasallam, which means "May the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him." When the name of Prophet Muhammad is mentioned, Muslims show respect to him by reciting this statement of peace.
sadaqah: charity beyond that which is obligatory
sahabi: companion of Prohet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
salah: an Arabic word meaning a spiritual relationship and communication between the creature and his Creator. It is commonly understood as ritualistic prayers. Salah is one of the five pillars of Islam and is mandated five times a day: Fajr (dawn), Zuhr (noon), Asr (afternoon), Maghrib (sunset), and Isha (late evening). On Friday noon there is a special congregational prayer called Salatul Jumah that includes a sermon by the imam. Salah is not to be confused with du'a or supplication.
sallallahu alaihi wasallam: peace and blessings of Allah be on him
shahadah: to bear witness; declaration of faith
Shaitan or Shaitaan: called Satan in Judaism and Christianity, Shaitan is the source of evil in the world. He always tries to misguide and mislead people. The Quran states that Shaitan is not an angel but a member of the jinn family. His other name is Iblis. The plural name is Shayatin.
Shariah: derived from the root word shara'a, the Shariah refers to the revealed and canonical laws of the religion of Islam. Some other names of it are shar, shirah, and tashri.
sheikh: a title or a nickname for an elderly person or one who is knowledgeable in religion. This title is also given to a leader or a wise person.
shirk: associating partners with Allah; disbelieving in the unity and oneness of Allah and believing that someone else shares authority with Allah or has the same attributes or characteristics as Allah. This is major shirk and it will not be forgiven. There can also be minor shirk, which is to do a good deed with the purpose of showing off rather than to please Allah.
sirah: the biography of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), which includes his personality, his life story, his prophethood, his leadership, and his ways of handling different situations. The seerah of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the highest example and source of inspiration for all Muslims in all phases of their daily life.
sujood: derived from the root word sajada, sujud is the prostration to Allah in the daily prayers. In the position of sujud Muslims praise Almighty Allah and glorify Him. During sujud, Muslims make sure that the forehead, nose, hands, knees, and toes, are all touching the floor. This is the most humble position in the prayer and making supplications is highly recommended.
sunnah: In general, habit, practice, customary procedure, or action, norm, and usage sanctioned by tradition. In purely religious terms, it refers to Prophet Muhammad's (s.a.w.) sayings, actions and approvals as authentically recorded by his companions.
surah: chapter of the Quran. The Quran is composed of 114 chapters. The plural of surah is suwar.
tawheed: confirming the oneness and unity of Allah; to believe that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah, that He does not share His power or authority with anyone, and that He is the Creator. This belief is the foundation of Islam.
Tawrat: the Torah; the revelations that were sent down to Prophet Musa (Moses).
ulama: plural of alim.
ummah: community or people; used in reference to the community of believers or Muslims.
wudu: the act of purifying (ablution) before daily ritual prayers or before reading the Quran.
zakah: meaning purification and increase in one's wealth, zakah is one of the five pillars of Islam. All Muslims who have annual savings beyond a certain amount, or live off farming, are obligated to pay zakah. The rate at which zakah should be paid and its recipients are clearly identified.